A FoodAllergy Primer for Culinary Students.

KenLove   Nov. 2007

 

 

What is Food Allergy?

A foodallergy is an immunologicresponse to afood protein. It is estimated that up to 12 million Americans have foodallergies of one type or another and the prevalence is rising. Six to eightpercent of children have food allergies and two percent of adults have them.The most common food allergies in adults are shellfish, peanuts, treenuts, sesame seeds, fish, and eggs, and the most common food allergiespresent in children are milk, eggs, and peanuts.

At thistime, there is no cure for food allergies. Treatment consists of avoidancediets, where the allergic person avoids any and all forms of the food to whichthey are allergic. For people who are extremely sensitive, this may involve thetotal avoidance of any exposure with the allergen, including touching orinhaling the problematic food as well as any surfaces that may have come intocontact with it. Food allergy is distinct from foodintolerance,which is not caused by an immune reaction.

Persons diagnosed with a food allergy may carry an auto injectorof epinephrine such as an EpiPen or Twinject, wear some form of medicalalert jewelry, ordevelop an emergency action plan, in accordance with their doctor.

Cross contamination in the kitchen can be the cause of severereactions, even death, in some people sensitive to different foods. Ingredientsin packaged foods need to be carefully analyzed by chefs before being utilizedin meals for food sensitive individuals.

 

Celiac Disease (Gluten)

Celiacdisease, or "celiac sprue," is a permanent adverse reaction togluten. Those with celiac disease will not lose their sensitivity to thissubstance. This disease requires a lifelong restriction of gluten.

The majorgrains that contain gluten are wheat, rye, oats, and barley. People with celiacdisease must strictly avoid these grains and their by-products.

 

Celiacdisease is a disease of the small intestine. The small intestine is a 22-foot longtube that begins at the stomach and ends at the large intestine (colon). The first 1-1/2 feet of thesmall intestine (the part that is attached to the stomach) is called the duodenum, the middle part is called the jejunum, and the last part (the part that isattached to the colon) is called the ileum. Food empties from the stomach into thesmall intestine where it is digested and absorbed into the body. While food isbeing digested and absorbed, it is transported by the small intestine to thecolon. What enters the colon is primarily undigested food. In celiac disease, thereis an immunological (allergic) reaction within the inner lining of thesmall intestine to proteins (gluten) that are present in wheat, rye, andbarley and, to a lesser extent, in oats. The immunological reaction causesinflammation that destroys the lining of the small intestine. This reduces theabsorption of dietary nutrients and can lead to symptoms and signs ofnutritional, vitamin, and mineral deficiencies. Other names for celiac diseaseinclude sprue, non-tropical sprue, gluten enteropathy, and adult celiac disease. (Tropicalsprue is another disease of the small intestine that occurs in tropicalclimates. Although tropical sprue may cause symptoms that are similar to celiacdisease, the two diseases are not related.)

A recent study in the United States suggests that the prevalenceof celiac disease in the United States is similar to Europe with as many as 1out of 133 persons may have it. Current research also indicates there may belinks between celiac and Alzheimer's disease, Lupus, and Parkinson's'.

 

Gluten from wheat, rye, barley and oats is found in many forms andchefs need to be aware of them. Chemical and food additives are often made fromthese grains. Cross contamination is a major issue for those suffering fromceliac.

 

A few foods and additives to be avoided by celiac patients:

Bread

Soy sauce (unless marked gluten free)

Ponzu, teriyaki, oyster sauces. (Unless marked gluten free)

Modified food starch

Vegetable protein

Hydrolyzed vegetable protein

Pasta - all types made from semolina flour

Spelt

Kamut

Coucous

Malt

Graham Flour

Edible Starch

Blue Cheese

Brewers Yeast

Dextrimaltose

Fu

Stearyldimoniumhydroxypropyl

Suet inPackets

Tabbouleh

Germamidopropyldimonium Hydroxypropyl

Surimi - fish cake

Some processed cheeses, ice cream, rice or soy milk and spicesalso contain wheat.

 

*Stock cubes (bullion)

*Caramel

*Soba

*Mustard powder

 

A more detailed list can be found at:

http://www.celiac.com/articles/182/1/Unsafe-Gluten-Free-Food-List-Unsafe-Ingredients/Page1.html

 

* Some manufacturers make gluten free products. In all cases theingredients list needs to be carefully checked.

 

Cross contamination from utensils, grills, pans, oil, toasters cancause severe pain and problems for celiac patients.  This is often a problem on buffet lines where people oftenuse the same tongs to pick up a pancake and bacon in the next tray. Smallcrumbs can cause the same sever reactions.

 

Wheat

 

Wheat-allergicpeople have an IgE-mediated response to wheat protein. These individuals mustonly avoid wheat. Most wheat-allergic children outgrow the allergy.

Are kamutand spelt safe alternatives to wheat? 
 No. Kamut is a cereal grain,which is related to wheat. Spelt is ancient wheat that has recently been marketedas safe for wheat-allergic individuals. This claim is untrue, however.Wheat-allergic patients can react as readily to spelt as they do to commonwheat.

 

Readlabels carefully.  Hot dogs and icecream can contain wheat. It is listed on the label.

Sometypes of imitation crabmeat contain wheat.

Wheat flour is sometimes flavored and shaped to look like beef,pork, and shrimp, especially in Asian dishes.

 

See the celiac list for wheat items to be avoided. For example,shoyu or soy sauce is usually made mostly of wheat.

 

 

Peanut - Tree nuts

Peanut allergy is a type of foodallergy, distinctfrom nut allergies. It is a hypersensitivity to dietary substances from peanuts causing an overreaction of the immunesystem, which may lead to severe physical symptoms for millions of people. The Asthmaand Allergy Foundation of America estimates that the majority of pediatric and adult foodallergy patients have a peanut allergy. Prevalence among adults and children issimilar (around 1%) but at least one study shows it to be on the rise inchildren. 25% of children with a peanut allergy grow out of it. It is usuallytreated with an exclusion diet and vigilant avoidance of foods that maybe contaminated with whole peanuts or peanut particles and/or oils. The mostsevere peanut allergies can result in anaphylaxis and is an emergency situation requiringimmediate attention and treatment with epinephrine. The allergy can be triggered by a mere1/1000 of a peanut.

 

Nut allergy is a type of food allergy. It is a hypersensitivity to dietary substances from tree nuts causing an overreaction of the immunesystem, which may lead to severe physical symptoms for millions of people. Nutallergy is slightly different than peanut allergy inasmuch as the types of nuts that causethe allergic reactions are not the same. Peanuts are considered legumes whereas tree nuts are considered dry fruits. The symptoms of peanut allergy and nutallergy are the same, but a person with peanut allergies may not necessarilyalso be allergic to tree nuts, and vice versa. Some peanut allergies inCaucasians are reversible with weight gain.

Nut allergies occur mainly, but not exclusively, in children. Theyare usually treated with an exclusion diet and vigilant avoidance of foods that maybe contaminated with tree nuts or nut particles and/or oils. The most severenut allergy reaction is called anaphylaxis and is an emergency situation requiringimmediate attention and treatment with epinephrine.

 

HiddenSources of Peanuts/Nuts

Artificialnuts can be peanuts that have been deflavored and reflavored with a nut, suchas pecan or walnut.

Mandelonasare peanuts soaked in almond flavoring.

Arachisoil is peanut oil.

African,Chinese, Indonesian, Mexican, Thai, and Vietnamese dishes often contain peanutsor are contaminated with peanuts during the preparation process. Additionally,foods sold in bakeries and ice cream shops are often in contact with peanuts.

Many brands of sunflower seeds are produced on equipment sharedwith peanuts.

Mortadella may contain pistachios.

Tree nuts have been used in many foods, including barbecue sauce,cereals, crackers, and ice cream.

 

Fish - Shellfish - Shrimp

Seafood allergy is a type of foodallergy. It is ahypersensitivity to dietary substances from shellfish, scaly fish, or crustaceans, causing an overreaction of the immunesystem that may lead to severe physical symptoms for millions of people. The Asthmaand Allergy Foundation of America estimates that the majority of pediatric and adult foodallergy patients have a seafood allergy. It occurs mainly, but not exclusively,in children. It is usually treated with an exclusion diet and vigilantavoidance of foods that may be contaminated with shellfish or fish ingredientsand/or oils. The most severe seafood allergy reaction is called anaphylaxis and is an emergency situation requiringimmediate attention and treatment with Epinephrine. It is generally recommended thatindividuals, who have had an allergic reaction to one species of fish, orpositive skin tests to fish, avoid all fish. The same rule applies toshellfish. 

 

SomeHidden Sources of Fish

Caponata,a traditional sweet-and-sour Sicilian relish, can contain anchovies.

Caesarsalad dressings and steak or Worcestershire sauce often contain anchovies.

Surimi (imitation crabmeat) contains fish (and wheat).

 

Milk,Cassin, Lactose  & Whey

Milkallergy is an immunologically mediated adversereaction to oneor more cow's milk proteins. In some people the ingestion of cow's milk can trigger the body into launching aninappropriate immune response to the proteins in milk resulting in an allergic reaction.

Theprincipal symptoms are gastrointestinal, dermatological and respiratory. These can translate to: skin rash, hives, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation and distress. The clinical spectrum extends to diversedisorders: anaphylactic reactions, atopicdermatitis, wheeze, infantilecolic, gastroesophagealreflux (GER), oesophagitis, allergiccolitis and constipation.

The symptoms may occur within a few minutes after exposure inimmediate reactions, or after hours (and in some cases after several days) indelayed reactions.

 

Milkallergy is a food allergy, an adverse immune reaction to a foodprotein that is normally harmless to the non-allergic individual. Lactose intolerance is a non-allergic food hypersensitivity,and comes from a lack of production of the enzyme lactase, required to digest the predominantsugar in milk. It should be noted that lactose intolerance is not actually adisease or malady, but merely the standard condition of 70% of the world'spopulation.

 

Milkprotein intolerance (MPI) is delayed reaction to a food protein that isnormally harmless to the non-allergic, non-intolerant individual. Milk proteinintolerance produces a non-IgE antibody and is not detected by allergy bloodtests. Milk protein intolerance produces a range of symptoms very similar tomilk allergy symptoms, but can also include blood and/or mucous in the stool.Treatment for milk protein intolerance is the same as for milk allergy. Milkprotein intolerance is also referred to as milk soy protein intolerance (MSPI).

 

Lactoseintolerance is an inability to digest and absorb lactose (the sugar in milk)that results in gastrointestinal symptoms when milk or products containing milkare drunk or eaten.

 

Whatcauses lactose intolerance?

Lactoseis a larger sugar that is made up of two smaller sugars, glucose and galactose. In order for lactose tobe absorbed from the intestine and into the body, it must first be split intoglucose and galactose. The cells lining the small intestine then absorb theglucose and galactose. The enzyme that splits lactose into glucose andgalactose is called lactase, and it is located on the surface of the cells thatline the small intestine.

Lactose intolerance is caused by reduced or absent activity oflactase that prevents the splitting of lactose (lactase deficiency). Lactasedeficiency may occur for one of three reasons, congenital, secondary ordevelopmental.

 

Whey isthe liquid part of milk, everything that is left over when curds form duringcheese making. Whey is what used to be called a waste product, and was dumpedby the ton. A chemical analysis of whey would show that it retains most ofmilk’s minerals and water-soluble vitamins, along with the bulk of the milk’ssugar. Whey therefore is sweet, health-packed, relatively fat-free, and cheap.

Once manufacturersdiscovered that they could give their products that good milky taste and feelat a fraction of the cost of whole milk, they started using whey in everything.Whey is in the vast majority of cookies, and can be found in uncountablenumbers of frozen foods, cold cuts, salad dressings, and canned soups. Thereare many categories of supermarket foods in which it is difficult to find aproduct that does not use whey. Natural food store items are much less likelyto use whey.

Liquid whey is mostly water, and so contains about the samelactose content as whole milk. Almost all whey used in commercial food productsis powdered. And whey powder is two-thirds or more lactose.

 

What arethe sources of lactose in the diet? 

Although milk and foods madefrom milk are the only natural sources of lactose; lactose often is"hidden" in prepared foods to which it has been added. People withvery low tolerance for lactose should know about the many food products thatmay contain lactose, even in small amounts.

 

SomeHidden Sources of Milk

Deli meatslicers are frequently used for both meat and cheese products.

Somebrands of canned tuna fish contain casein, a milk protein.

Manynon-dairy products contain casein (a milk derivative), listed on the ingredientlabels.

Somemeats may contain casein as a binder. Check all labels carefully.

Many restaurants put butter on steaks after they have been grilledto add extra flavor. The butter is not visible after it melts.

 

Foodproducts that may contain lactose include:

Bread andother baked goods

Processedbreakfast cereals

Instantpotatoes, soups, and breakfast drinks

Margarine

Lunchmeats (except those that are kosher)

Saladdressings

Candiesand other snacks

Mixes forpancakes, biscuits, and cookies

 

Someproducts labeled nondairy, such as powdered coffee creamer and whippedtoppings, also may include ingredients that are derived from milk and,therefore, contain lactose.

Learn toread food labels with care, looking not only for milk and lactose among thecontents but also for such words as whey, curds, milk by-products, dry milksolids, and nonfat dry milk powder. If any of these are listed on a label, theitem contains lactose.

In addition to food sources, lactose can be "hidden" inmedicines. Lactose is used as the base for more than 20% of prescription drugsand about 6% of over-the-counter drugs. Many types of birth control pills, for example, contain lactose, asdo some tablets for stomach acid and gas. However, these products typicallyaffect only people with severe lactose intolerance.

 

 

Soy

Soyallergy is a type of food allergy. "Soy allergy" (U.S.) or Soya allergy (UK) is one of the most common food allergies. It is a hypersensitivity to dietary substances from soy causing an overreaction of the immunesystem that may lead to severe physical symptoms for millions of people. The Asthmaand Allergy Foundation of America estimates soy is among the nine most common food allergensfor pediatric and adult food allergy patients. It is usually treated with anexclusion diet and vigilant avoidance of foods that maybe contaminated with soy ingredients. The most severe food allergy reaction iscalled anaphylaxis and is a medicalemergencyrequiring immediate attention and treatment with Epinephrine.

Thoseallergic to soy protein should always read food ingredientlabels carefully and avoid any foods containing soybean, including the substances listed below.Caution should be exercised when dining at Asian restaurants or when usingAsian sauces, which may contain soy.

Somepeople who are allergic to soy protein may have an extreme allergic reactionand go into anaphylactic shock (anaphylaxis). In cases of anaphylaxis,emergency medical personnel typically administer epinephrine (available as an auto injector, such as EpiPen) and an antihistamine such as Benadryl (diphenhydramine). In event of an allergic reaction, the victim should see a physician orimmediately go to the emergency room, as anaphylaxis can be fatal if nottreated immediately.

Soyallergy can also manifest itself as urticaria, rash, redness (inflammation due to immune system response) andsevere itching of the skin. These symptoms can happenimmediately, but may also manifest a day (or even days) after consuming soyprotein.

Many fast-foodrestaurantscommonly use soy protein in hamburger buns (soy flour) hamburger meat (soyprotein) and hydrolyzedvegetable protein(HVP) in sauces. On their respective web sites, McDonald's, Burger King andWendy's list soy flour as an ingredient in their hamburger buns. U.S. NutritionInformation Multi-grain breads, doughnuts, doughnut mix and pancake mixcommonly contain soy flour.

Some products[for reasons having to do with national regulation of soy products] don't listsoy protein or soy flour on their ingredients labels, yet they still containsoy. There are still many latent issues resolving how soy should be regulated.

Studiesshow that most individuals who are allergic to soy protein may be able tosafely consume soybean oil (not cold pressed, expeller pressed, or extrudedoil) and soy lecithin, as these products do not normally containsoy protein.

Product containing soy protein include:

Bakedgoods, canned tuna, cereals, crackers, infant formulas, sauces, and soups.

Somepeanut butter lists soy on the label.

Edamame

Miso

Natto

Shoyusauce

Soy (soy albumin, soy fiber, soy flour, soygrits, soy milk, soy nuts, soy sprouts)

Soya

Soybean(curd, granules)

Soybeanbutter

Soyprotein (concentrate, isolate)

Soy sauce, tamari

Tempeh

Texturedvegetable protein(TVP)

Tofu

Thefollowing food additives may contain soy protein:

Hydrolyzedvegetable protein (HVP)

Flavoring (including natural and artificial)

Canned chicken broth

Vegetable broth, gum, and starch

Bouillon cubes (beef, chicken, vegetable, etc.)

 

Corn

Corn is acereal grain with proteins that are similar to those in other cereal grains,such as wheat. Unlike wheat, which is a common food allergen, there are relatively few reports ofallergic reactions to corn. However, the reports that do exist show reactionscan be severe. These reports include anaphylaxis as a result of eating corn andcorn-related foods, as well as severe reactions after exposure to cornstarch insurgical gloves.

Peoplewith an allergy to one cereal grain often show positive allergy tests to other cereal grains. However, thesetests often represent false positive tests, meaning that no allergic reactionoccurs with eating many of the other cereal grains.

It isimportant to realize, however, that a positive allergy test places a person athigh risk for an allergic reaction to that food, and the food should only beeaten if directed by a physician.

Allergic reactions can occur as a result of eating both raw andcooked corn. Those with corn allergy may also react to corn pollen (typicallywith allergic rhinitis and/or asthma), grass pollen and cornstarch. As withother food allergies, avoidance of corn and corn-related foods is themain way to prevent future reactions.

 

All labels should be read closely for products containingcorn or corn products. The following is a list of foods that may contain corn(not an exhaustive list):

Corn syrup

Corn oil

Corn meal

Cornstarch

Vegetable oil

Maize

Popcorn

Grits

Hominy

Corn sugars (dextrose, Dyno, Cerelose, Puretose, Sweetose,glucose)

Margarine

Corn chips (Tortilla chips, Fritos)

Corn fritters

Breakfast cereals (such as corn flakes)

Corn tortillas

Certain paper containers (boxes, cups, plates, milk cartons)may contain corn, and the inner surface of plastic food wrappers may be coatedwith cornstarch.

Use caution with the following foods, which may includesources of corn from various products, such as cornstarch, corn syrup andcorn/vegetable oils:

Vegetable soup

Commercial soups

Peanut butter

Various meats (cold cuts, ham, hotdogs, sausages)

Breaded or fried foods

Cheese

Chili

Chop Suey

Chow mein

Cheese spreads

Fish sticks

Fried potatoes or fried rice (if corn oil is used)

Mixed vegetables (frozen, canned)

Succotash

Pork and beans

Creamed vegetables

Breads dusted with corn meal

Graham crackers

Baking mixes

Pancakes (certain mixes)

Pancake syrups

English muffins

Tacos

Tamales

Polenta

Gravy (thickened with corn starch, for instance)

Salad dressings

Canned or frozen fruits sweetened with corn syrup

Dates and other fruit confections

Ice creams, sherbets

Chocolate milk, milk shakes, soy milks, eggnog

American wines, whiskey, gin, beer, ale

Carbonated beverages such as Coca-Cola, 7-Up, etc

Lemonade

Instant coffees

Powdered sugar

Jams and jellies

Candies

Catsup

Chewing gums

Sauces

White distilled vinegar

Monosodium glutamate

Baking powder

Cake yeast

Bleached flour

Gelatin capsules

Adhesives (envelopes, stickers, stamps)

Toothpastes

Vitamin preparations

 

 

Lactose,Milk  & Whey

 

Lactoseintolerance is an inability to digest and absorb lactose (the sugar in milk)that results in gastrointestinal symptoms when milk or products containing milkare drunk or eaten.

Whatcauses lactose intolerance?

Lactose isa larger sugar that is made up of two smaller sugars, glucose and galactose. In order for lactose tobe absorbed from the intestine and into the body, it must first be split intoglucose and galactose. The cells lining the small intestine then absorb theglucose and galactose. The enzyme that splits lactose into glucose andgalactose is called lactase, and it is located on the surface of the cells thatline the small intestine.

Lactose intolerance is caused by reduced or absent activity oflactase that prevents the splitting of lactose (lactase deficiency). Lactasedeficiency may occur for one of three reasons, congenital, secondary ordevelopmental.

 

Whey isthe liquid part of milk, everything that is left over when curds form duringcheese making. Whey is what used to be called a waste product, and was dumpedby the ton. A chemical analysis of whey would show that it retains most ofmilk’s minerals and water-soluble vitamins, along with the bulk of the milk’ssugar. Whey therefore is sweet, health-packed, relatively fat-free, and cheap.

Oncemanufacturers discovered that they could give their products that good milkytaste and feel at a fraction of the cost of whole milk, they started using wheyin everything. Whey is in the vast majority of cookies, and can be found inuncountable numbers of frozen foods, cold cuts, salad dressings, and cannedsoups. There are many categories of supermarket foods in which it is difficultto find a product that does not use whey. Natural food store items are muchless likely to use whey.

Liquid whey is mostly water, and so contains about the samelactose content as whole milk. Almost all whey used in commercial food productsis powdered. And whey powder is two-thirds or more lactose.

 

What arethe sources of lactose in the diet? 

Although milk and foods madefrom milk are the only natural sources of lactose; lactose often is"hidden" in prepared foods to which it has been added. People withvery low tolerance for lactose should know about the many food products thatmay contain lactose, even in small amounts. Food products that may containlactose include:

 

Bread andother baked goods

Processedbreakfast cereals

Instantpotatoes, soups, and breakfast drinks

Margarine

Lunchmeats (except those that are kosher)

Saladdressings

Candiesand other snacks

Mixes forpancakes, biscuits, and cookies

Someproducts labeled nondairy, such as powdered coffee creamer and whippedtoppings, also may include ingredients that are derived from milk and,therefore, contain lactose.

Smartshoppers learn to read food labels with care, looking not only for milk andlactose among the contents but also for such words as whey, curds, milkby-products, dry milk solids, and nonfat dry milk powder. If any of these arelisted on a label, the item contains lactose.

In addition to food sources, lactose can be "hidden" inmedicines. Lactose is used as the base for more than 20% of prescription drugsand about 6% of over-the-counter drugs. Many types of birth control pills, for example, contain lactose, asdo some tablets for stomach acid and gas. However, these products typicallyaffect only people with severe lactose intolerance.

 

Egg

Egg allergy is a type of foodallergy. It is ahypersensitivity to dietary substances from the yolk or whites of eggs, causing an overreaction of the immunesystem that may lead to severe physical symptoms for millions of people in theUnited States.[1]. It occurs mainly, but not exclusively,in children. It is usually treated with an exclusion diet and vigilant avoidance of foods that maybe contaminated with egg. The most severe food allergy reaction is called anaphylaxis[2] and is an emergency situation requiringimmediate attention and treatment with Epinephrine. The Asthmaand Allergy Foundation of America estimates that most children outgrow egg allergy by the ageof five, but some people remain allergic for a lifetime[3].

 

SomeHidden Sources of Egg

Eggs havebeen used to create the foam or milk topping on specialty coffee drinks and areused in some bar drinks.

Somecommercial brands of egg substitutes contain egg whites.

Most commercially processed cooked pastas (including those used inprepared foods such as soup) contain egg or are processed on equipment sharedwith egg-containing pastas. Boxed, dry pastas are usually egg-free, but may beprocessed on equipment that is also used for egg-containing products. Freshpasta is sometimes egg-free, too. Read the label or ask about ingredientsbefore eating pasta.

 

 

Nightshades

Allergies to certain foods appear linked torheumatoid arthritis, particularly those in the nightshade family of plants: Brinjal,Cayenne, Capsicum, Eggplant, Ground Cherry, BananaPepper, Bell Pepper, Chili Pepper, Green Pepper, Red Pepper, Sweet Pepper,Paprika, Pimento, Potato, Tabasco, Thorn Apple, Tobacco, Tomato.

An allergy to tomato is rare and the worst parts of the plant forcausing an allergic reaction seem to be the seeds, skin and juice. Somepatients can ingest process tomato products such as tomato paste with little orno reaction yet develop severe symptoms with fresh tomatoes.

 

Citrus

 

Citric acid intolerance is not the same as citrus allergy.Citrus allergy sufferers respond to substances specific to citrus fruits suchas limonene or specific proteins found in the fruits, whereas citric acidintolerant people react only to citric acid, which is found in a number offruits and even some vegetables, and is used as a food additive.

Citric acid intolerance is not a "true" foodallergy - that is, it's not an autoimmune response to a chemical in food.Intolerances occur when the body lacks some chemical or enzyme necessary for itto properly digest a particular substance

 

Geographic tongue, also known as benign migratory glossitis, erythema migrans, or continentaltongue, is a condition affecting the tongue. The colloquial names are dueto the condition resembling a map.The topside of the tongue is covered in small protrusions called papillae. In a tongueaffected by geographic tongue, there are red patches on the surface of thetongue bordered by grayish white. The papillae are missing from the reddishareas and overcrowded in the grayish white borders. The small patches maydisappear and reappear in a short period of time (hours or days), and change inshape or size. While it is not common for the condition to cause pain, it maycause a burning or stinging sensation, especially after contact with certainfoods, such as spicy or citrusfoods. Chemicals, such as mouthwashes and teeth whiteners, can also aggravatethe condition. Geographic tongue may also cause numbness. Co-existence offissures of the tongue is often noticed.

 

Contact with citrus peel can also cause a reaction in some people.

 

Rice

A riceallergy is a potentially deadly response by a person’s immunesystem to rice orfoods containing rice. After a susceptible person ingests rice, the immunesystem reacts with the release of histamines and other chemicals that triggersymptoms that can range from mild to life–threatening. While somewhatrare in the United States, rice allergy still affects a small portion of thepopulation.

The lowincidence of rice allergy in the United States has given rise to the myth thatrice is a hypoallergenic food that will not cause allergies. In fact, rice allergy is not unusual inJapan and other nations where rice is a staple food. Rice pollen also causes allergies when inhaled, andthe symptoms mimic those of hayfever.

There is no way to know whether a person with a rice allergy islikely to have a mild or severe reaction after eating rice products. Symptomsthat begin as mild to moderate can quickly intensify and lead to potentiallylife–threatening anaphylactic shock. Therefore, those with this allergymust avoid the grain altogether. There are severalfoods that can serve as substitutes for rice. A person with a rice allergy whoaccidentally consumes rice must seek immediate medical attention.

 

Carrageenan allergy

Shouldcarrageenan be avoided by a fish- or shellfish-allergic individual?
Carrageenan is not fish. Carrageenan, or "Irish moss," is ared marine algae. This food product is used in a wide variety of foods,particularly dairy foods, as an emulsifier, stabilizer, and thickener. 

 

Carrageenan has been linked to toxic hazards, includingulcers and cancer; In addition to suppressing immune function, carrageenan cancause intestinal ulcers and inflammatory bowel disease in animals and someresearch indicates that carrageenan is associated with causing cancer inhumans.

 

Iodine allergy

An iodineallergywould be an immediate response to iodineon the skinor iodine injected in a contrast dye to take better X-rays. In general suchexposure would cause immediate anaphylacticshock in those who are allergic. A patient might show very laboredbreathing and the tongue or throat might swell. Treatment is an injection withepinephrine to stop the histamine reaction.

An actual iodine allergy is extraordinarily rare. Some showsigns of sensitivity to iodine with nausea,flushing, fever, or some labored breathing. In most cases, this sensitivity,particularly to injected iodine is labeled iodine allergy. This however, issomething of a misnomer. Very few are actually allergic to iodine.

 

One of the reasons people feel they may have an iodineallergy is if they are allergic to shellfish or simply fish. Both shellfish andother fishes are a rich source of iodine, but often those allergic are notresponding to the iodine in the fish.

However, if one has a shellfish allergy, or any allergy forthat matter, there is a slightly increased risk of “iodine allergy.” Ascompared to the person without an allergy to shellfish, people allergic toshellfish may show about a five percent greater chance of showing “iodineallergy” symptoms. However similar studies show that having any allergies

 

Celery allergy

Celery is one of the most common foods to cause oral allergysyndrome in adults in countries such as Switzerland, France and Germany.Allergy to celeriac (the celery root) is more common than to celery (the stalksof the plant), but both can sometimes cause severe reactions. Symptoms varyfrom mild ones, such as oral allergy syndrome, to anaphylactic shock. Somereports suggest that celery spice is as likely to cause a reaction in sensitivepeople as raw celery. Since November 2005, food-labeling rules requirepre-packed food sold in the UK, and the rest of the European Union, to showclearly on the label if it contains celery. 


 

Coconutallergy

Coconut allergy is rare, but it can cause reactions (includinganaphylaxis) in people who are sensitive. 
A small number of people whoare allergic to nuts also react to coconut. Some people who are allergic tolatex may react to coconut too. 


 

Latex-food syndrome

Latex allergy is caused by a reaction to a number of allergensfound in natural rubber or latex. In recent years, the number of people withlatex allergy has increased, particularly among healthcare workers and peoplewith spina bifida, because they come into contact with lots of latex products.Latex contains many allergens that are similar to the allergens in some foods,so people who are allergic to latex might also find they react to foods such asapple, avocado, banana, carrot, celery, cherry, chestnut, coconut, kiwi, mango,paprika, and strawberry. This is called latex-food syndrome. In the same way,people who are allergic to these foods may also react to latex. 

People with a latex allergy should be tested for allergies to foods that arelinked to latex-food syndrome. 

 Some initial research hassuggested that small amounts of latex could be transferred to food from glovesused by food handlers, or from some packaging or labels. 

 

Some people have a strong reaction to natural latex in sometropical fruit like abiu, chico, fig and jackfruit.

 

Fruit and vegetable allergy

Allergic reactions to fruit and vegetables are usually mild andoften just affect the mouth, causing itching, a rash, or blisters where thefood touches the lips and mouth. This is called oral allergy syndrome.

 A number of people who react in this way to fruit or vegetableswill also react to pollen from some trees and weeds. So, for example, peoplewho are allergic to birch pollen are also likely to be allergic to apples.

 Generally, cooking fruit and vegetables make them less likely tocause an allergic reaction. Pasteurization and other heat treatments (which areused, for example, on fruit juices) have the same effect. However, this is notthe case for all fruit and vegetables. For example, cooking celery doesn't makeit less likely to cause a reaction. 

 How ripe a fruit orvegetable is can also make a difference. For example, tomatoes are more likelyto cause an allergic reaction the riper they are. 


 

Sesame allergy

Sesame allergy is increasing, which might be because sesame isbeing used more. 
 Sesame seeds, sesame oil and other sesame products,such as tahini and humus, are used in cooking, for example in Turkish ororiental dishes, and in food products such as bread, biscuits, salads and sauces.Sesame allergy can cause severe reactions including anaphylaxis. People withsesame allergy might also react to poppy seeds, kiwi fruit, hazelnuts and rye.People who are allergic to sesame should avoid sesame oil. This is because it'smade by cold-pressing sesame seeds and isn't refined, so it can contain smallamounts of proteins, which can cause a reaction in people who are sensitive.
 Since November 2005, food-labeling rules require pre-packed food soldin the UK, and the rest of the European Union, to show clearly on the label ifit contains sesame seeds or if one of its ingredients contains them. 

 

Vegetableoil allergy

 

Vegetable oil is usually a blend of oils. In the UK, the oils usedmost in vegetable oil are soya, rapeseed, sunflower, maize and palm kerneloils. Where they appear in pre-packed food, these oils will have been refined.The refining process removes almost all of the proteins from the oil.

 Since it is the proteins in oils that can cause allergicreactions, sensitive people probably won't react to refined oils. Somespecialty oils, such as sesame and walnut, aren't refined, so they are bestavoided by people who are sensitive to the nuts or seeds they are made from.

 

Meatallergy

 

People with an allergy to meat may react to just one type, such aspork, beef, lamb or chicken, or they may react to a range of types. The mostcommon symptom of meat allergy is dermatitis (an allergic skin reaction).Cooking destroys some of the allergens in meat, but some people will stillreact to cooked meat. 

 Processed meat products, such asfrankfurters, luncheon meats and pates, sometimes contain other ingredients,particularly milk products, so it's possible for someone who is allergic tomilk to react to a meat product because it contains milk. For example, milk issometimes used in chicken nuggets to stick the breadcrumbs to the chickenpieces. 


 

 

Resources:

http://www.foodallergy.org

http://www.medicinenet.com/celiac_disease/article.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org

http://allergies.about.com

http://allergy.health.ivillage.com/foodallergyintolerance/riceallergy.cfm

http://www.eatwell.gov.uk

http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/stevecarper/AHC0699.htm

http://health.discovery.com/centers/allergyasthma/foodallergy/food.html

http://www.peanutallergy.com/

http://www.glutenfreeforum.com/

http://www.myownthoughts.com/?p=2262

http://www.angelfire.com/ca/traute/allergies.html

http://www.celiac.com/

http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/about/organization/dait/PDF/june30_2003.pdf

http://www.allergyhospital.co.uk/food_allergy_for_public.htm

http://www.calgaryallergy.ca/articles/english/botanical.htm

http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~vclarke/citric.html

http://hubpages.com/hub/Cross-Reactions-Of-Allergies